Sunday, 10 April 2022

Ofqual Consultation GCSE French German and Spanish Conditions March - April 2022

 PLEASE RESPOND!

Please can I urge people to respond to the current Ofqual consultation on their conditions, requirements and guidance to exam bodies with respect to the new GCSE French German and Spanish. It must be submitted by Tuesday 19th April 2022.   There are 7 open-ended questions.

INFORMATION

  • Here is a link to the Ofqual page with documents and direct link to the online response form
  • Here is a direct link to the online response form.
  • ALL has led a webinar in order to support members.   Here is a link to the page which has the recording (1 hour),  pdf of the PowerPoint presentation, participant ‘chat record’ and preparatory notes
  • Here is a direct link to the recording

MY PERSONAL RESPONSE

I am putting together my own response, and all are welcome to look at this.  Please  me know of any  errors / misunderstandings.

Here is a link to my document on my Google drive.  It has a ‘summary’ (5 sides) and ‘full’ (9 sides) response.  Please do not be put off by the size!  I hope it helps others to consider their own responses.

WHY RESPOND?

It can be very tempting to give up on this, as the whole process of reviewing, proposing and approving this new GCSE has been patently contrary to the spirit of involving professionals and experts in subject teaching and assessment, not least by asking for responses at periods and within time frames which do not allow for easy discussion between teachers.  However, if we do not respond, at best we have absolutely no chance of influencing decisions, and at worst, it can appear that the profession is in agreement with change.

How disappointing it is that although over 1,000 signed the APPG statement in protest at the new subject content, this translated into only 400 rejecting it in the official consultation, such that the statistics showed a majority in favour.  We know the reasons (a superficially attractive proposal before you look into the consequences, a consultation launched at an inconsiderate time for schools knee-deep in TAGs, a government-funded body prepped up to promote the changes while the rest of us had to abandon what we were doing in order to invest time into analysing them.... etc. etc.) .. but it is still disappointing.

WHAT CHANGES WERE MADE TO THE SUBJECT CONTENT AS A RESULT OF CONSULTATION RESPONSES?

The introduction to the consultation outcome highlights the following:

Timing: A one-year delay to allow more time to prepare for changes

Vocabulary:

  • A widening of vocabulary for selection (85% of top 2,000 rather than 90% of top 2,000)
  • Definition of vocabulary widened to 'word families' to allow an increase in the number of words on which pupils can be tested
  • the percentage of words AOs must select form top 2,000 reduced from 90% to 85% allowing greater flexibility in identifying lower frequency word families when creating specs
  • AOs can add up to 20 additional vocabulary items of cultural, historical or geographical content
  • For reading, AOs can use true and exact cognates 

Themes and topics:

a clear expectation that AOs identify broad themes and topics

 Question types

A requirement to demonstrate deduction and inference skills.  Now students required to infer plausible meanings of single words outside the vocabulary list when embedded in th econtext of written sentence (i.e. reading only - not listening)

 Grammar.  Minor adjustments:

2 technical annexes  - exemplification of  families of regular inflected words and all forms of the required words that must be listed.

 In addition, I noticed other changes including the following: 
  • Explicit aim to understand relationships between the foreign language and  English (presumably allowing for cognates)
  • Acknowledgement that words cannot always be clearly discernible when heard (qualified ‘as appropriate to pronunciation norms for each language)
  • Adding requirement for some vocabulary outside the vocabulary list for the dictation
  • Adding requirement for interactive unprepared questions (role play and visual stimuli)
  • Explicitly allowing credit for words outside the word list
  • Removal of original proposed para 16 which read ‘There will be an explicit and representative balance of different parts of speech such as nouns (concrete and abstract) pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs and prepositions’
  • There were also some changes in the grammar requirements, especially in French.  e.g. FOUNDATION: adding the ‘recevoir’ as a high frequency verb pattern, HIGHER: ,including plural form of imperfect and conditional at higher level. Adding ‘il y en aura’.  Sound/ spelling, including reference to intonation: ‘students will be expected to pronounce words with stress patterns that allow their speech to be clear an comprehensible.  Three sounds removed: eille, euill- and ouille
  • German: including future tense plural forms werden + infinitive in foundation

Of course, this was not enough. 

In particular with regard to vocabulary, there was a dogmatic ideological refusal to concede to examining body requests to reduce the constraint to 80% of the top 3,000 words.  Why refuse this?  Surely the only reason can be knowing that by conceding to the request it would have made it easier for the boards to use an interesting, more relevant theme-based approach.

But please don’t give up!

Please, please do take the time to respond if you possibly can.  Being part of an organisation such as ALL means that you have access to resources where others have invested time in order to try to unpack the issues in a consultation, but we depend on individuals to submit responses in order to give weight to arguments.

THANK YOU!

Sunday, 20 March 2022

The French Experience with Christian Michel.

EXCLUSIVE: "ALL4language": Guided Walk in the steps of the French in Soho

by French London Experience - Christian Michel 

Saturday, 3 pm, 2nd April 2022

Reservation essential on Eventbrite.

https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/exclusive-all4language-guided-walk-in-the-steps-of-the-french-in-soho-tickets-296942060697

There are only 25 places, so please book early to avoid disappointment but please also be sure to cancel your ticket if for any reason you cannot attend.

If you wish to participate and you are not yet an ALL member, please join here:

https://www.all-languages.org.uk/join/

MY EXPERIENCE!

I was delighted to meet Christian Michel at an event held by l’Institut français.  We talked about the benefits of using French for real, in a real context, and I was very interested in finding out more about the regular tours which he leads for people interested in improving their French and learning about historical relations between French speakers and London.



He invited me to join a walking tour and I absolutely loved it.  As we stood in various points of London, Christian pointed out streets, buildings and statues, and explained their ‘French Connection’ in very clear French which was very easy to follow.  We were a mixed group, including learners and native French speakers, and I was extremely impressed at the way that Christian was able to easily adapt his French according to the listeners… always able to communicate the message through words and gestures.  And above all, his pleasant easy-going manner meant that it was very easy to ask questions and interact.

CHRISTIAN MICHEL

Christian has experience in leading tours for native speakers, French schools visiting London, adult learners of French and is keen to expand this into leading tours for schools.

This is how he introduces himself on his site:

I am Christian MICHEL and I am founder of French London Experience.

Passionate about France, the French and French, but also about London and history, I love sharing my passion and handing it over to people.

French London Experience is a project created to promote connections between the French and the British cultures and people. It offers many ways to learn about French culture and practise French skills, especially in London.

It gives people a lot of opportunities to improve their knowledge about France, its people, culture, history, culinary traditions, way of life and much more. 

AN EXCLUSIVE OFFER TO MEMBERS OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR LANGUAGE LEARNING

Christian has generously offered to lead a free tour for members of ALL so that you can to experience this for yourself.

We will meet at the French Protestant church in Soho on Saturday 2nd April at 3 pm and stroll for about 2 hours.

There are only 25 places, so please book early to avoid disappointment but please also be sure to cancel your ticket if for any reason you cannot attend.

Thank you, and I look forward to seeing you there!


Saturday, 12 February 2022

Overview of key changes to GCSE French, German and Spanish Subject Content

 I was asked to give a brief summary of  the key changes between the GCSE MFL Subject Content 2015, and the GCSE French, German and Spanish  Subject Content 2022.  I hope this helps.

 Based on overview grid comparing structure of Subject Content document – see end.

Aims

2015: Based on GCSE common approach across subjects to allow students to show what they know, understand and can do.  It is significant that the word ‘learning outcomes’ is included as the focus is on Communication SKILLS (the ‘can do’) and a description of the range of comprehension/expression which is expected. This allows students of all abilities to experience success and get credit for being able to convey and receive messages, even if they do not know and understand every aspect of vocabulary and grammar involved in the stimulus or indeed in what they produce.

Note:  native speakers do not always know and understand grammatical features, but can communicate. 

2022: Although the aim has been retained to ‘communicate for authentic purposes’, the detail of the subject content does not match this aim.  The content is based on a ‘knowledge curriculum’. Students expected to know words, grammar and phonics and constraints on selection of vocabulary will severely compromise the chance to provide ‘authentic purposes'.  The aims do not break down the range of outcomes which the GCSE covers.

Subject content

2015:

Explicitly requiring content to reflect aims and purposes.  Linked with the outcomes, the content allows students to be able to demonstrate what they can do [skills] in authentic situations.  Requirement to include three broad themes, thus ensuring preparation for a range of situations which match the aims  a.identity and culture,  b.local, national, international and global areas of interest, c.current and future study and employment.  AO has flexibility within these themes.

 2022: Sets out rigid requirements for knowing and understanding vocabulary, grammar and sound spelling correspondences.  Omits mentions of strategies within skills.  Requirement (added after outcry at removal of themes) to identify a limited number of broad themes or topics with relevance to the countries or communities where the language is spoken. Themes not specified.  AO has very limited flexibility regarding themes because of word limits and selection imposed.  (85% high frequency from limited range of sources unrepresentative of student language and experience)

 Vocabulary + Grammar

 2015: No requirement for a word list, but if included, a requirement that it is not comprehensive (students expected to be tested on inference in the exam).  Grammar in line with requirements from previous GCSEs, and includes ‘receptive only’ element in both F + H tiers.

 2022: Requirement for specified length , comprehensive vocabulary list (though allowing for word families with regular features to be tested).  Strict constraints on provenance and nature of the list.  (85% from top 2000 of a frequency corpus).  Grammar requirements more fully described.  Slight changes which overall may appear to reduce demand, but since knowledge of vocab and grammar is the subject aim (as opposed to what you do with that knowledge) there will probably be a much greater demand on accuracy in speaking and writing.

 Question types

 2015: Constraints on use of English to test comprehension and prompt productive tasks

2022: Comprehension questions and task stimulus will be in English.

  Assessment tasks

 (NB this should never have been on the DfE remit.  Ofqual subject conditions impose common constraints, but based on subject content.)

 2015: Requirements for what the students have to do in an exam are explicit in the ‘scope of study’ section – the  skills required (e.g. ‘ take part in short conversations’ – ‘identify overall message’ – ‘draw inference’ and explicit regarding the stimulus / source –( range of contexts, length, authentic, themes.)

 2022: Since skills are not referenced (no outcomes) there is no  reference as to how students should demonstrate their knowledge, with the exception of speaking and phonics:

SPEAKING:

undertake role play(s), including asking and answering questions, simulating a context such as a social conversation, where instructions about what to say are unambiguous; talk about one or more visual stimulus/stimuli, such as (connected) photographs or pictures, and extend this conversation into a short unprepared interaction.

Since SCC is part of the subject content, it must be tested. It is not left to the AO to decide how to do this.  These tasks are required:

1. read aloud a short written text and undertake a short unprepared conversation relating to the text;

2. Undertake dictation of short, spoken extracts (including some vocabulary from outside the vocabulary list) with credit for accurate spelling


Introduction

1 sets out knowledge skills + understanding

Subject aims and learning outcomes

2- [=5] communicate, horizons

3 - Communication skills[ = 5]  [+ confident - coherent - spontaneous - fluent - knowledge about how the language works - enrich vocab to increase independent use + understand extended language in a wide range of context - rich range of authentic spoken and written material incl literary texts - links to rest of curriculum - prep for employment - repair strategies

Subject content

4- specified topics [12]

5 - content must reflect aims and purposes

Prior learning

6 [=2] build on KS2 + 3

Contexts and Purposes [= partially 5+8, 7a, 8, 9a, 9b, 12]

Scope of study

7

Listening: understand and respond[=9b]

Speaking: communicate and interact in speech [9e]

Reading: understand and respond[9a]

Writing: communicate in writing [9c+d]

Use of assessed language in questions and rubrics[11]

Grammar requirements[21]

Appendices for each language

 

Introduction

1, sets out knowledge skills + understanding

2, [=6] build on KS2 + 3

3 NEW Frequency+ Productive..

Subject aims

4- [partially 3: communication skills, purposes NEW: subjects which interest them

5- [=2] communicate for authentic purposes, horizons [=partially context and purposes]

6 [=3 BP6]

Subject content

7 a-c enable to learn / know vocab, grammar phonics [use + apply - no contexts given]

8 [=partially context and purposes] Both receptive + productive, range of context, wide social range, move between En/TL

9a = 7/R No strategies

b = 7/L No strategies (incl write to dictation)

c = 7/W lexically and grammatically accurate +

d translate vocab / short sentences / texts]

e = 7/S

Read aloud + answer qs on text: R/S/L

Role play

Photo card

10 [=7/S + 7/W]

11 = Use of assessed …

12-20  [=4] specified vocabulary [=5] ref 5-8 above. Instruction re: vocab but no list/

-20

Grammar

21-24

Grammar content - No receptive

Annex

 

 

Wednesday, 26 January 2022

GCSE Subject Content Announcement: A Personal Response

It was an unpleasant surprise to discover on Friday 14th January 22  that the DfE had published the final GCSE Subject Content for French, German and Spanish without the usual advance notice which is usually given as a courtesy to Communication Teams of stakeholders such as ALL, as well as the national media who were very unhappy and curious about this breach of protocol.  

 Changes to subject content are usually made in the context of a new set of requirements set for all subjects.  There have been no changes in requirements.  The National Curriculum has not changed.  French German and Spanish are the only GCSE subjects being changed. The reason given was that it was necessary to change the exam to increase ML take-up, but as Geoff Barton from ASCL said “At a time when pupils need to be enthused to learn languages, the government has chosen to make GCSEs both prescriptive and grinding. The idea that this will help it fulfil its target of 90% of pupils taking up these subjects is pure fantasy.” even though Ofsted are using the "stick" of EBacc ambition to incentivise schools to increase the percentage.

 Traditionally subject associations are invited to be part of a collaborative consultation process when new Subject Content is discussed. The process on this occasion has been pointedly designed to exclude stakeholders and experts, including awarding bodies who are expert in the field of assessment.

 Naturally I share the deep disappointment of the ALL Management Board [link to press statement here] (and I am sure of the 1,000+ signatories of the APPG statement) that the Department of Education has not taken up the invitation by subject associations, exam boards and headteacher unions to bring all stakeholders together to work collaboratively in a second review phase for the GCSE content design and development in the light of the concerns expressed by so many. 

 It is very clear that there is no need for such a radical change.  There was sufficient agreement on specific flaws of the current subject content to make some ‘tweaks’ e.g. removing target language questions, requiring high frequency words in word lists, removing the requirement to introduce unknown words into an assessment.  This would have improved the experience of the pupils and could have been enacted quickly without making changes which are going to impose a massive workload on teachers to no benefit, and indeed will be detrimental.

 I have compared the proposed and final content here and will later publish a comparison between current (2015) and final (2022). https://helenmyers.blogspot.com/2022/01/subject-content-french-german-spanish.html

 The content has been changed radically from the current subject content.  Analysis shows that there have been some small concessions to concerns raised, but the key concerns about the artificial limits imposed on the selection of vocabulary and the focus on knowledge of vocabulary, grammar and phonetics rather than ability to communicate and understand have not been addressed.  The awarding bodies requested as a compromise that the limit be changed to 80% of the top 3,000 words as this would make creating meaningful tasks less artificial, but the DfE have not moved from their insistence that the top 2,000 words only are to be categorised as high frequency, and have only conceded 5% additional words outside that limit. Although there is an additional allowance for 20 culture-related words, this will not be enough to address the concern about having sufficient words needed to do meaningful tasks on a range of themes.

 I can still remember the pleasure of being able to encourage learners of all abilities when the then ‘new’ GCSE came in in 1988, when I could say that they would be rewarded for communicating a message rather than needing to be totally accurate and precise.  I hope that awarding bodies will have the scope to be able to produce mark schemes which are inclusive so that we can reward all for what they know, understand and can do.  The subject content of 2022 and its associated assessment requirements are not going to facilitate this task.

 My great worry is the very clear link between this Subject Content and the Ofsted ML Curriculum Review "high-quality teaching may" statements which promote a very limiting pedagogy, which one could describe as the Latinisation of ML, so contrary to the emphasis on encouraging pupils of all abilities to study a language to communicate rather than a dry puzzle to be solved.

 But the most important issue is that until severe grading is addressed, whatever pedagogy we use, whatever exam we have, there will be little incentive for more pupils to study GCSE MFL. 

 

 

 

Tuesday, 18 January 2022

Subject Content French German Spanish 2022 compared with 2021 proposal V2

 UP-DATE TO BLOGPOST 16/01/22 .  THIS VERSION INCLUDES ANNEX A - FRENCH 

The DfE published the GCSE Suject Content for French German and Spanish on Friday 14th January 2022.

The focus of this exercise is to see what the changes are between the Proposal  for Subejct Content GCSE MFL published in 2021 and what has been published finally in January 2022.

  • Column 1: Detail of proposal in 2021
  • Column 2: Detail of final 2022
  • Column 3: A commentary based on facts.  Where I have given my personal commentary, this is preceded by my initials- HEM.

It will shortly be completed with a comparison of the SSC and grammar requirements fro German an d Spanish.

There will later be a separate analysis of the differences between the current 2015 Subject content and the  January 2022 Subject content.

Link to download the version 2 document from my Google Drive here.

Or read below

Comparison of proposal (2021) and final French German and Spanish GCSE subject content January 2022

Key


SC 2015 = Subject Content 2015

Para = Paragraph

BP = Bullet Point

NC PoS = National Curriculum Programme of Study

HEM = Helen Elizabeth Myers (me!)

HF = High Frequency

Omissions / changes are highlighted in yellow


 

Commentary.  I have sought to make a factual comparison.  For some particular points where I am expressing a personal opinion these are indicated by ‘HEM’.

 

Proposal

Final January 2022

Commentary

MFL GCSE Subject Content

French German and Spanish GCSE subject content January 2022

 

Necessary, as no changes to other MFL e.g. Italian.

I will not comment on this change in the rest of the document

Introduction

Introduction

 

1 This document sets out the learning outcomes and content coverage required for GCSE specifications in modern foreign languages (MFL).

1 This document sets out the learning outcomes and content coverage required for GCSE specifications in French, German and Spanish.

 

2 GCSE specifications in MFL will take account of the national curriculum programmes of study for key stages 2 and 3. They will build on the foundations of grammar, vocabulary and linguistic competence envisaged by the programmes of study for key stages 2 and 3, increasing the level of linguistic and cognitive demand.

2 GCSE specifications in French, German and Spanish will take account of the national curriculum programmes of study for key stages 2 and 3. They will build on the foundations of grammar, vocabulary and linguistic competence envisaged by the programmes of study for key stages 2 and 3, increasing the level of linguistic and cognitive demand.

No change

3.Courses designed to support preparation for GCSE specifications will ensure systematic, well-sequenced coverage of the specification’s linguistic content, avoiding overloading students at any given point, and with ample opportunities for practising the content taught at each stage receptively and productively, in the oral and written modalities, with an approximately equal emphasis on each.

3. Linguistic content for GCSE in French, German and Spanish will focus largely but not exclusively on the most commonly occurring vocabulary of each language. Vocabulary and grammatical requirements for each tier will be clearly defined in the specification. Students will be expected to know and use the linguistic content specified receptively and productively, in the oral and written modalities, with an approximately equal emphasis on each.

SIGNIFICANT

The original reference to course preparation (systematic, well-sequenced, practice) has been omitted.  This is correct because the proposal had gone beyond DfE remit which should only be describing content to be examined.

 

Fresh text in final content signalling at early stage the 2 main features of the Jan 2022 which distinguish it from the 2015:

1.      key focus of subject content on high frequency vocabulary (but note, ‘not exclusively’)

2.      Content is defined and  ALL content is to be used productively (i.e. no receptive-only content).

 

Subject aims

Subject aims

 

4. GCSE specifications in MFL should provide a coherent, satisfying and worthwhile course of study. They should encourage students to develop confidence in, and a positive attitude towards, MFL and to recognise the importance of languages. They should also provide a strong linguistic and cultural foundation for students who go on to study MFL at a higher level post-16.

4. GCSE specifications in French, German and Spanish should provide a coherent, satisfying and worthwhile course of study. They should encourage students to develop confidence in, and a positive attitude towards, French, German and Spanish and to recognise the importance of languages. They should also provide a strong linguistic and cultural foundation for students who go on to study languages at a higher level post-16.

No change

5. Through studying a GCSE in a modern foreign language, students should develop their ability and ambition to communicate in speech and writing with speakers of the language for authentic purposes and about subjects which are meaningful and interesting to them. The study of a modern foreign language at GCSE should also broaden students’ horizons, encourage them to step beyond familiar cultural boundaries and develop new ways of seeing the world.

Through studying a GCSE in a modern foreign language, students should develop their ability and ambition to communicate independently in speech and writing with speakers of the language for authentic purposes and about subjects which are meaningful and interesting to them. The study of a modern foreign language at GCSE should also build students’ confidence and broaden their horizons, enabling them to step beyond familiar cultural boundaries, develop new ways of seeing the world, and better understand relationships between the foreign language and the English language.

Added ‘independently’ reinstating word used in SC 2015 [Point 3, BP 4]

 

build confidence: reinstating word used in SC 2015  [3 BP1) – NC PoS aim

 

relationships between FL + En

HEM: I am uncertain of provenance, but seems a helpful addition!

6. It is important that students should be taught the language in the context of the countries and communities where the language is spoken. As they learn the language, students should become familiar with aspects of the contexts of the countries and communities in which the language is spoken. This is because an appreciation of the culture, history, geography and working environments of these countries and communities is an integral part of a well-designed language course and  is likely to be motivating and interesting for students. Such contexts will be referenced in assessment tasks as appropriate.

6. It is important that students following a GCSE course should become familiar with aspects of the contexts and cultures of the countries and communities where the language is spoken. Linguistic content may be developed through a range of broad themes and topics which have, for example, cultural, geographical, political, contemporary, historical or employment-related relevance. Linguistic content which is largely, though not exclusively, determined by frequency will enable material  relating to most broad themes and topics to be used, and will unlock a wide range of spoken and written texts.

SIGNIFICANT

Now there is option [‘may’] to group content into themes (examples given – but not prescribed).

 

HEM: Note that examples do not include reference to a context of  personal + social relevance (which could include for example needing to ask where the toilet is). So apparently not wishing to make the concession that students would be motivated by learning language of immediate relevance to them and their lives.  [BUT I have to note that teachers complaining about ‘boring topics’ have not helped when trying to make this argument.  Beware of what you wish for …!]

 

SIGNIFICANT

Acknowledgment of need for language which is ‘not exclusively’ determined by frequency

[HEM: But still worded to imply it is the HF which will unlock, whereas we know that it is the basic core vocab which unlocks meaning [ref: Jim Milton beer/omelette example.. can you mime an omelette? ]

Subject content

Subject content

 

7. GCSE specifications in MFL should enable students to:

7. GCSE specifications in French, German and Spanish should enable students to:

No change

a. Learn, and be able to recall readily and use, the range of vocabulary required for the level at which they are studying. The parameters for specifying the vocabulary to be learnt are set out in paragraphs 13-21 of this document.

a Learn and use the range of vocabulary required for the level at which they are studying. The parameters for specifying the vocabulary to be learnt are set out in paragraphs 13-21 of this document.

 

Removes words ‘recall readily’. This allows examination of carrying out a function rather than the speed at which it is done.

 

[HEM: ‘Recall readily’ probably coming from the cognitive science focus on need to give opportunities for ‘recall’ in a sequence of lessons]

b. Learn and be able to use the grammar specified to understand and produce meaning accurately, in oral and written modalities, and to speak with increasing fluency. The grammar to be learnt in each language is set out in annexes 1-3 of this document.

b. Learn and use the grammar specified to understand and produce meaning in written and oral modalities. The grammar to be learnt in each language is set out in Annexes 1-3 of this document.

Removes reference to ‘speak with increasing fluency’. Fluency not necessarily only related to grammar.

 

HEM: Not sure why oral and written interchanged.  Traditionally, skills are mentioned in the sequence of learning: Listening – speaking – reading – writing. Perhaps another way of signalling that this is ‘different’ just as the word ‘skill’ is perhaps deliberately avoided.

c. Know and be able to apply the principles by which spelling represents sounds in standard or widely used forms of the language, and use clear and comprehensible pronunciation when speaking the language.

c. Learn and apply the principles by which spelling represents sounds in standard or widely used forms of the language, and use clear and comprehensible pronunciation when speaking the language.

 

HEM Q: Why changed from know to learn?  [should be in terms of what candidates know, understand and can do …]

8. Students should be able to use the language they are learning both receptively and productively, in spoken and written forms, for a range of audiences and purposes, in different genres and in formal and informal contexts which are relevant to their current and future needs and interests, having regard to the likely experiences of a wide social range. They should be able to recall and use language in familiar and new situations and be able to move between the language they are learning and English.

8. Students should be able to use the language they are learning both receptively and productively, in spoken and written forms, for a range of audiences and purposes, in different genres and in formal and informal contexts which are relevant to their current and future needs and interests, having regard to the likely experiences of a wide social range. They should be able to recall and use language in different situations and be able to move between the language they are learning and English.

‘Different’ not ‘new’

HEM: … presumably because the focus is on breadth of situation rather than novelty of situation.

9. GCSE specifications in MFL must require students to:

9. GCSE specifications in French, German and Spanish must require students to

No change

a. understand written texts in the language. Texts will comprise defined vocabulary and grammar for each tier and will be of limited complexity at foundation tier.

a. understand written texts in the language. Texts will predominantly focus on the defined vocabulary and grammar for each tier and will be of limited complexity at foundation tier.

 

[reading]

b. understand spoken extracts comprising the defined vocabulary and grammar for each tier which are delivered at a pace which is no faster than a moderate pace, where each word is clearly discernible, and which do not contain extraneous distractions or interruptions;

b. understand spoken extracts comprising the defined vocabulary and grammar for each tier which are delivered at a pace which is no faster than a moderate pace, where each word is clearly discernible (as appropriate to pronunciation norms for each language), and which do not contain extraneous distractions or interruptions;

[listening]

 

Acknowledges nature of the French language where words liaise.  Original proposal impossible.

 

Note: inferring / deducing meaning NOT reintroduced from SC 2015, unlike reading – see below.

undertake dictation exercises from short spoken extracts, with credit for accurate spelling.

c. Undertake dictation of short, spoken extracts (including some vocabulary from outside the vocabulary list) with credit for accurate spelling.

[phonetics]

SIGNIFICANT

 

HEM: Attempt to make exercise a more valid test of phonics, but will not be reliable as some pupils may know words already. 

Perversely, the only way to test reliably would be to dictate made-up words…..!!

c. write text in the language in a lexically and grammatically accurate way, based on simple and familiar stimuli.

d. write text in the language in a lexically and grammatically accurate way in response to simple and familiar stimuli.

 

d. translate in writing vocabulary items and short sentences or texts, from the language to English and vice versa using a range of the vocabulary and grammar specified for each tier. In this context translation means an appropriate and sufficient rendering of the meaning of the original English.

e. translate in writing short sentences or texts, from the language to English and vice versa, using a range of the vocabulary and grammar specified for each tier. In this context, translation means an appropriate and sufficient rendering of the meaning of the original language.

 

 

f. infer, by using knowledge of the vocabulary and grammar specified for each tier, plausible meanings of single words from outside the Vocabulary List when they are embedded in the context of written sentences.

SIGNIFICANT

Re-introducing requirement to infer – but only in reading:

 SC 2015 Reading BP 4 [deduce meaning]

 

Leads to a more realistic authentic task, and allows for exam bodies to introduce words beyond the list – as SC 2015.

 

g. speak using clear and comprehensible language to:

[speaking] –

added text: clearer signalling of the skill of speaking, giving context for the tasks

 

HEM: NB it is not in the remit of DfE to specify how things are tested – this is presumably a way around this …

e. read aloud, using clear and comprehensible pronunciation, short sentences from the written form of the language and demonstrate understanding of them (for example by answering questions);

i. read aloud a short written text and undertake a short unprepared conversation relating to the text;

SIGNIFICANT

Removal of qualitative element (nature of pronunciation –[presumably allowing positive marking for less than 100%)

 

Change to task related to the reading aloud 

 

·  Previously would have required Q/A in English (to be consistent with requirement for comprehension questions to be in English)

 

·  Introduces unprepared dialogue in form of conversation (previously missing )

undertake role play simulating a context such as a social conversation where instructions are unambiguous and there are no unexpected questions;

ii. undertake role play(s), including asking and answering questions, simulating a context such as a social conversation, where instructions about what to say are unambiguous;

SIGNIFICANT

Allows for more than one role play

Re-introduces explicit requirement to ask questions [SC 2015 speaking / BP2 “take part in a short conversation, asking and answering questions,]

Allows for questions to be unscripted BUT ensures no penalty for not understanding question  by requirement to give unambiguous instructions about what to say (HEM: fairer test – not penalised for listening skill)

answer questions about a visual stimulus such as a photograph.

iii. talk about one or more visual stimulus/stimuli, such as (connected) photographs or pictures, and extend this conversation into a short unprepared interaction.

SIGNIFICANT

Allows for more than one picture

Re-introduces requirement for unprepared interaction (SC 2015 speaking BP4 ‘responding to unexpected questions,

For these activities students will have time for preparation (without access to reference materials), and vocabulary and grammar expected will be from the defined content for each tier.

Pupils should have suitable specified preparation time for each of the above components without access to reference materials. For spoken and written production, the expected language will be from the defined content (vocabulary, grammar, and sounds) for each tier, with equal credit given for language used that is beyond the defined content but that fulfils the task requirements.

Pupils not students – probably a mistake.

 

Added “suitable specified”

HEM: perhaps to ensure requirement for exam conditions?

 

Explicit requirement covering speaking + writing that content required will not require language beyond the spec.

 

SIGNIFICANT

Allows credit for language beyond the word list.

HEM: This allows validation of language learnt beyond the strict confines of the word list – perhaps even giving scope for students to talk about what matters to them in a productive task?

10.Complexity [1] of language: Spoken and written language (for comprehension and production) will be of limited complexity at foundation tier. At higher tier students will be expected to understand (in listening and reading) and produce (in speech and writing) language at a higher level of complexity. The complexity of the language will be in both cases appropriate to the level of study.

10.Complexity [1] of language: Spoken and written language (for comprehension and production) will be of limited complexity at foundation tier. At higher tier students will be expected to understand (in listening and reading) and produce (in speech and writing) language at a higher level of complexity. The complexity of the language will be in both cases appropriate to the level of study.

No change

[1] Complexity in this sense means the extent to which a text uses features such as multi-clause units (e.g. relative clauses), pronouns, especially multiple pronouns, multiple verbs in one sentence or clause, long sentences, syntax or word order which is very different to English.

[1] Complexity in this sense means the extent to which a text uses features such as multi-clause units (e.g., relative clauses), pronouns, especially multiple pronouns, multiple verbs in one sentence or clause , long sentences, or morphology and syntax (e.g., word order) which is very different to English in form and/or function.

added detail to describe complexity

11.Question types: Where questions are designed to test comprehension of written and spoken texts in the assessed language, these comprehension questions will be in English. Other types of question will be in English or the assessed language as appropriate to the task. Rubrics will be in English.

11.Question types: Where questions are designed to test comprehension of written and spoken texts in the assessed language, these comprehension questions will be in English. Other types of question may be in English or the assessed language as appropriate to the task. Rubrics will be in English.

No change

12.Themes and topics: Because vocabulary specified in this content is informed by the frequency of occurrence in the language it will be well suited to communication about a wide range of common themes and topics, and for different purposes (see paragraphs 5-8 above).

12. Themes and topics: Because most, though not all, vocabulary, defined in specifications is informed by the frequency of occurrence in the language, it will enable access to a wide range of themes and topics. Specifications should identify a limited number of broad themes or topics with relevance to the countries or communities where the language is spoken. These could cover, for example, cultural, geographical, political, contemporary, historical or employment-related aspects, as appropriate to the themes and level of learning. These themes and topics are not intended to be specifically reflected in texts selected for terminal

SIGNIFICANT

 

High frequency no longer described as ‘well suited to communication about themes’, but changed to ‘will enable access to themes’. 

HEM: This is a fundamental acknowledgement and logically should lead to allowing for access to a broader range of words  - but very little concession made in practice, sadly.

 

Allows for words which are not high frequency.

 

Repeats aims(para 6)  in describing themes. 

HEM: Note, although personal + social not listed as an example theme, I would very much hope that they are included by the exam boards.

Vocabulary

Composition of vocabulary content

Changed.

Describes what follows – not the vocabulary itself, but how it is to be selected.

13.Students will be expected to know 1200 lexical items for foundation tier, and a further 500 lexical items for higher tier. Because no vocabulary is specified for KS2 or KS3, the vocabulary list proposed for GCSE must be comprehensive and should make no specific assumptions about vocabulary previously taught

13.Students will be expected to know 1,200 lexical items for foundation tier, and a further 500 lexical items for higher tier. Students will also be required to know words which can be regularly inflected and (for reading only) regularly derived from listed lexical items using the grammar specified in the grammar annex (exemplification at Annex D). Because no vocabulary is specified for KS2 or KS3, the Vocabulary List proposed for GCSE must be comprehensive and should make no assumptions about vocabulary previously taught.

SIGNIFICANT

 

regularly inflected  - presumably for listening and reading since only the derived seems to be for reading only?

 

derived - necessary change to accommodate content para 9f: f. infer, by using knowledge of the vocabulary and grammar specified for each tier, plausible meanings of single words from outside the Vocabulary List when they are embedded in the context of written sentences.

20. (first part)  Words will be listed in the basic form commonly found in dictionaries. Where different parts of speech are derived from a single root, each part of speech will be listed separately. Further derived and inflected forms of each part of speech should not be separately listed, provided that the defined grammar covers their formation [4]. Inflected and derived forms which follow no regular pattern should be listed as separate items under a section called ‘Highly irregular inflected forms’.

14. Vocabulary lists must include, as part of the 1,200 or 1,700 items, the words listed at Annex E. These are the words which are referenced in the grammar annex for each language and so need to be included. They include irregular forms of high frequency verbs and other parts of speech.

Requirements for listing and counting words now included in a helpful detailed  appendix for each language.

 

French Foundation: 278

French Higher:329

French Foundation optional: 310

French Higher optional: 282

 

German Foundation: 268

German Higher:304

German Foundation optional: 139

German Higher optional: 288

 

Spanish Foundation: 264

Spanish Higher: 334

Spanish Foundation optional: 85

Spanish Higher optional: 85

 

HEM: Note the difference in numbers between different languages.  What are the practical consequences of this?

 

[4] 4 For example: French ‘rester’ (verb) and ‘le reste’ (noun); Spanish ‘viejo’ (adjective) and ‘vejez’ (noun); German ‘Regen’ (noun) and ‘regnen’ (verb) all require separate listings in the vocabulary lists as they are different parts of speech. (An important exception to this that a nominalised use of a verb that translates directly as the English gerund (e.g., ‘étudier’ (to study/studying) ‘(das) schwimmen/Schwimmen’ (to swim/swimming) will be listed as one single item. However, where there is a different translation in English for the nominalised verb (e.g. ‘essen’ (to eat) and ‘das Essen’ (food, meal), the words will be listed separately with their different English translations.) In contrast, inflectional and derivational variants within the same part of speech will not be listed as separate items, such as French ‘restait’, ‘restons’; French ‘le reste’, ‘les restes’; Spanish ‘vieja’, ‘viejísimo’; German ‘regnete’, ‘geregnet’, as these can be formed from the lexical items in the vocabulary lists using the specific derivational and inflectional morphology listed in the grammar lists (with only highly irregular inflected forms listed in the vocabulary lists, as specified in the annexes)

Appendix exemplifies these examples.

Appendix now presents this info more clearly

20 continued in new para 17

 

 

14 – moved to match new para 18

 

 

15 – moved to new para 19

 

 

16.There will be an explicit and representative balance of different parts of speech such as nouns (concrete and abstract), pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs and prepositions.

 

Removed.

 

HEM: I think this was there originally because of NCELP’s belief that too few verbs were required in exams.  Helpful to be more flexible.

17. Moved to 16 iii

 

 

18. Moved to split between new 15 + new 20

 

 

[18.The vast majority of lexical items listed as vocabulary will be single word vocabulary items (with their grammatical gender where appropriate), with the following exceptions: ]

15.In addition to the 1,200 and 1,700 items, the Vocabulary Lists can contain:

 

 

 

b. Up to 20 short phrases that are multi-word units in both the target language and English, usually consisting of no more than five identifiable words in the target language, may be included in the total count of the vocabulary items across both tiers (e.g., il y a’ for there is/are’).

i. up to 30 short phrases that are multi-word units in the target language, usually consisting of no more than five identifiable words in the target language (e.g., ‘il y a’ for there is/are’; ‘s’il vous plaît’ for ‘please’).

 

SIGNIFICANT

Increase of multi-word units permitted.

 

Removal of requirement for both TL and English to be multiword, hence example where French is multiword (if you please) and English is one word (please)

 

ii. up to 20 items (some of which can be multi-word units of up to five words) to refer to relevant geographical or cultural places/events, including the names of countries to be known receptively and productively.

SIGNIFICANT

Increase of multi-word units permitted – 20, constrained to cultural aspects.

 

HEM: This is necessary to accommodate focus on culture where core words will not be high frequency and are likely to be in phrases (e.g. L’Arc de Triomphe, La Tour Eiffel – La Côte d'Ivoire? )

 

 

16.For Reading only:

 

19.At higher tier students are expected to read texts that may include a small number of words outside the vocabulary list defined by the awarding organisation. English meanings of such words must be supplied adjacent to the text for reference. No more than 2% of words in any given higher tier text may be glossed in this way.

i. Higher and overlapping tier texts may include a small number of words outside the Vocabulary List. English meanings of such words must be supplied adjacent to the text for reference. No more than 2% of words (rounded to the nearest whole word) in any given text may be glossed in this way.

SIGNIFICANT

Foundation paper can also include words not on the list (which must be glossed).

 

NB

· if fewer than 25 words in a text, no words can be glossed (because 1 word out of 25, rounded, is more than 2%)

· this requirement still makes it unlikely to be able to include authentic texts.

 

[HEM: Does this contradict the requirement to test inference in reading?]

In addition, for both Foundation and Higher tiers, all proper nouns (such as cities or countries) that are not listed in the most frequent 2,000 words and are not deemed to be easily understood, can be glossed or explained in an adjacent note.

ii. For both Foundation and Higher tiers, all proper nouns (such as cities or countries) that are not on the Vocabulary List and are not deemed to be easily understood, can be glossed or explained in an adjacent note.

Correction to allow for countries within top 2000 to be glossed if not in the vocab list.

17.Where the language being learnt is historically related to English and there are close cognates (words which are very similar or the same in English and the assessed language), students benefit from familiarity with common patterns (in spelling and pronunciation). Cognate words should be included and counted in the defined vocabulary list in a way

iii. Up to 2% of words (rounded to the nearest whole word) of any given text can be comprised of true and exact cognates (2) which are not included in the Vocabulary List.

In a text of greater than 25 words, one cognate does not have to be from vocabulary list.

 

(2) These are defined as words which are spelt the same in English and the assessed language (excluding any accents, and where one letter in words of at least six letters could differ from the English spelling) and have the same meaning in both languages.

Definition of cognate given.  Only one letter can differ.

 

HEM: I wonder where this definition comes from?  It will vary from one language to another.)

So in French : géographie, histoire, biologie, académie, vinaigrette, adresse, pharmacie, banque, calendrier, électrique,  would  NOT count.

20 continued …. Words with multiple meanings but with the same part of speech (e.g., the French noun ‘histoire’ that can be translated by the different English words ‘story’ and ‘history’) will be listed as one item in the vocabulary list. All English equivalents that could be tested (e.g. in questions that require working from English to the target language) must be explicitly provided.

17.Words with multiple meanings but with the same part of speech (e.g., the French noun histoire that can be translated by the different English words ‘story’ and history’) will be listed as one entry in the Vocabulary List. All English equivalents that could be tested (e.g., in questions that require working from English to the target language) must be explicitly provided.

No change

14.The vocabulary which students will be expected to know, for both comprehension and production, will be compiled with close and explicit reference for each item on the list to frequency of occurrence in the language. This information about frequency will be taken from a recommended source based on data from one or more large, modern corpus/corpora.

18.The vocabulary which students will be expected to know, for both comprehension and production, will be compiled with close and explicit reference for each item on the list to frequency of occurrence in the language. This information about frequency will be taken from a source based on data from one or more large, modern corpus/corpora. [3]

 

 

 

 

When compiling word lists, the information provided in paragraph 20 should be taken into account.

This requirement moved up slightly

These corpora must contain 20 million words or more; be internationally recognised; and should be based on both spoken and written language taken from a wide range of different contexts [2].

 

 

 

[3] These corpora must each contain 20 million words or more; be internationally recognised; and should be based on both spoken and written language taken from a wide range of different contexts.

All reference to corpora in a footnote

When compiling word lists, the information provided in paragraph 18 should be taken into account.

 

 

 

2 Examples, but not a definitive list, of recommended word frequency resources, are: ‘Davies, M., & Davies, K. (2018). A frequency dictionary of Spanish: Core vocabulary for learners (2nd ed.). London: Routledge’; ‘Lonsdale, D. & Le Bras. Y. (2009). A frequency dictionary of French: Core vocabulary for learners. London: Routledge’; and ‘Tschirner, E. & Möhring, J. (2019). A frequency dictionary of German: Core vocabulary for learners (2nd ed.). London: Routledge’. More information on the suitability of these word lists can be found here.

Examples, but not a definitive list, of recommended word frequency resources, are: ‘Davies, M., & Davies, K. (2018). A frequency dictionary of Spanish: Core vocabulary for learners (2nd ed.). London: Routledge’; ‘Lonsdale, D. & Le Bras. Y. (2009). A frequency dictionary of French: Core vocabulary for learners. London: Routledge’; and ‘Tschirner, E. & Möhring, J. (2019). A frequency dictionary of German: Core vocabulary for learners (2nd ed.). London: Routledge’. More information on the suitability of these word lists can be found here

No change

15.At least 90% of words selected must be from the 2,000 most frequent words occurring in the most widely used standard forms of the language. In some cases, more than one spelling is in common use, including where recent spelling reforms have taken place. In such cases, tolerance should be shown for both versions of the spelling.3

19.At least 85% of words selected must be from the 2,000 most frequent words occurring in the most widely used standard forms of the language. In some cases, more than one spelling is in common use, including where recent spelling reforms have taken place. In such cases, tolerance should be shown for both versions of the spelling.4

SLIGHT CHANGE

HEM: Minor concession to the outcry over the narrow restriction of word selection (Some asking for a 50%, exam boards in the consultation asking for 80%)

 

Would it really have cost them so much to accede to a request for 80% ?

3 Examples here include- French: coût/cout; German: der Fluß/der Fluss; Spanish: sólo/solo

4 Examples here include for French: coût/cout; German: der Fluß/der Fluss; Spanish: sólo/solo

No change

18.The vast majority of lexical items listed as vocabulary will be single word vocabulary items (with their grammatical gender where appropriate), with the following exceptions:

 

20.The vast majority of lexical items listed as vocabulary will be single word vocabulary items

 

Detail of how to list now given in appendix

a. Where a compound word or phrase translates a single English word, it should be counted as a lexical item in the vocabulary list (e.g., for French ‘s’il vous plaît’ for ‘please’ will be listed as a single item, ‘le petit déjeuner’ for ‘breakfast’ will be listed separately from ‘petit’ and ‘le déjeuner’). Note, however, that where a compound word or phrase translates a compound English word and can easily be understood from its components, and where the components are already included in

the list, there is no need to include such a compound as well (e.g., German Sommerferien’ for ‘summer holidays’).

 

Where a compound word or phrase translates a single English word, it should be counted as a separate lexical item in the Vocabulary List (e.g., en cambio for ‘however’; see paragraph 15 on multi-word units). However, where a compound word or phrase can easily be understood from its components, and where the components are already included in the list, there is no need to include the compound word as well (e.g., German Sommerferien for ‘summer holidays’, see compound section in the German grammar annex).

Different examples given.

 

 

Grammar

Grammar

 

21.The grammar requirements are set out in two tiers: foundation and higher. The requirements set out for higher tier include everything specified for foundation.

21.The grammar requirements are set out in two tiers: foundation and higher. The requirements set out for higher tier include everything specified for foundation.

No change

22.Students will be expected to apply their knowledge of the grammar specified appropriate to the task set and to the tier of entry.

22.Students will be expected to apply their knowledge of the grammar specified appropriate to the task set and to the tier of entry.

No change

23.For French, German and Spanish, the grammar requirements are in the annexes to the document. Items in brackets are either marked as illustrative using “e.g.,” (they illustrate the grammar point being described for the purposes of clarification and are not listed in the vocabulary list) or they are comprehensive and laid out in full in the brackets (i.e., they indicate the full set of features to be included and this exhaustive set of items must also be included in the vocabulary lists).

23.For French, German, and Spanish, the grammar requirements are in the annexes to the document. Items in brackets are either marked as illustrative using “e.g.,” (they illustrate the grammar point being described for the purposes of clarification and are not listed in the Vocabulary List) or they are comprehensive and laid out in full in the brackets (i.e., they indicate the full set of features to be included and this exhaustive set of items must also be included in the Vocabulary Lists).

No change

Sound-symbol correspondences (core literacy)

 

No heading

24.The requirements for knowledge about sound-symbol correspondences (SSCs) are the same for both foundation and higher tiers, as laid out in the annexes to this document.

26.The requirements for knowledge about sound-symbol correspondences (SSCs) are laid out in the annexes to this document.

Mistaken numbering?

 

Removed emphasis that this applies to both tiers.

Grammar content

Grammar content

 

GCSE students will be expected to develop and use their knowledge of grammar throughout their course.

GCSE students will be expected to develop and use their knowledge of grammar throughout their course.

No change

The grammar requirements for GCSE are set out in two tiers: foundation and higher. Students will be required to use their knowledge of grammar from the relevant lists, appropriate to the language studied and to the relevant tier of entry. Students entering higher tier assessments will be required to apply all grammar listed for foundation tier in addition to the grammar listed for higher tier.

The grammar requirements for GCSE are set out in two tiers: foundation and higher. Students will be required to use their knowledge of grammar from the relevant lists, appropriate to the language studied and to the relevant tier of entry. Students entering higher tier assessments will be required to apply all grammar listed for foundation tier in addition to the grammar listed for higher tier.

No change

These lists describe grammatical features of the most widely used standard varieties.

These lists describe grammatical features of the most widely used standard varieties.

No change

The lists are written from the point of view of English-speaking students of the language, and so include some reference to certain cross-linguistically complex relations with English.

The lists are written from the point of view of English-speaking students of the language, and so include some reference to certain cross-linguistically complex relations with English

No change

Students will be required to demonstrate both receptive and productive knowledge of the grammar from the list

Students will be required to demonstrate both receptive and productive knowledge of the grammar from the list (though the derivational morphology laid out in the grammar annex can only be included for reading).

Change to accommodate requirement to test inference in reading paper.

‘Grammar’ is defined as including the morphology (inflectional and derivational [1] and syntax (rules of word order, relations between words, and obligatory use of specific features).

‘Grammar’ is defined as including the morphology (inflectional and derivational [5] and syntax (rules of word order, relations between words, and obligatory use of specific features).

No change

1 Inflectional morphemes carry grammatical meaning without changing the word’s part of speech. For example, the plural -s in cats, the comparative -er in taller, the past -ed in changed, the 3rd person singular -s in walks.

 

Derivational morphemes change the meaning and function (and often the part of speech). For example, happy à happiness.

5 Inflectional morphemes carry grammatical meaning without changing the word’s part of speech. For example, the plural -s in ‘cats’, the comparative -er in ‘taller’, the past -ed in ‘changed’, the 3rd person singular -s in ‘walks’.

 

Derivational morphemes change the meaning and function (and often the part of speech). For example, ‘happy’ → ‘happiness’.

No change

The Vocabulary Lists will lay out the lexicon that is needed to ‘realise’ (or ‘use’) the grammar.

The Vocabulary Lists will lay out the lexicon that is needed to ‘realise’ (or ‘use’) the grammar.

No change

For some grammatical features in the lists below, items are given that fall on the borderline between being categorised as ‘grammar’ or ‘lexicon’ – in all such cases, these items must also be listed in the Vocabulary List. The Vocabulary List must also specify frequent highly irregular forms, within a  grammatical subsystem (i.e., subparts of paradigms where only some forms are irregular). This is because such forms are likely to be learnt and retrieved as individual items rather than as part of a broader grammatical system. Listing them in the Vocabulary List, therefore, reflects the pedagogical attention required for these highly irregular forms.

Some grammatical features in the Annexes below can be perceived as ‘grammar’ or ‘lexicon’ – these items must be listed in the Vocabulary List, as stipulated in the Annexes. The Vocabulary List must also specify highly irregular forms within a grammatical subsystem (i.e., subparts of paradigms where only some forms are irregular), as laid out in the Grammar Annexes. This is because forms, such as irregular stems, are likely to be learnt and retrieved as individual items rather than as part of a broader grammatical system. Listing them in the Vocabulary List, therefore, reflects the pedagogical attention required for these highly irregular forms.

Annexes replace grammar lists.

 

Clearer definition.

Items below given in brackets which are prefaced with “e.g.” are illustrative, to clarify the description of the grammar features, and so they will not be included in the Vocabulary List. In contrast, items given without “e.g.” are comprehensive, and thus provide all the examples of the grammar that are included in the Subject Content and all of these items must also be contained in the Vocabulary List.

Items below given in brackets which are prefaced with “e.g.” are illustrative, to clarify the description of the grammar features, and so they will not be included in the Vocabulary List. In contrast, items given without “e.g.” are comprehensive, and thus provide all the examples of the grammar that are included in the Subject Content and all of these items must also be contained in the Vocabulary List.

No change

Note that the English equivalents of some of the grammar are given. This is relevant when testing students’ ability to work from English to the target language (e.g., in translation tasks).

Note that the English equivalents of some of the grammar are given in the Annexes. This is relevant when testing students’ ability to work from English to the target language (e.g., in translation tasks).

 

 

 

Helen Myers.

16th January 2022

 

Spanish + German SCC and Grammar appendices to follow shortly.

Note that there have been changes.


ANNEXES

 Annex A: French grammar and sound-symbol correspondences (foundation and higher tier)

FOUNDATION TIER

 NB presented in the order of 2022.  Some changed position in the list, but I am not commenting on this

 

Proposal

Final January 2022

Commentary

NOUN PHRASES

NOUN PHRASES

 

Formation of feminine nouns (highly frequent irregulars will be listed in the

Vocabulary List as separate items, e.g., chef, cheffe; héros, héroïne; Juif,

Juive; travailleur, travailleuse)

• Add -e

• No change (article changes only)

• -eur -rice

-er ère

-el -lle

• -en -nne

Formation of feminine person nouns (highly frequent irregulars will be listed in the

Vocabulary List as separate items, e.g., chef, cheffe; héros, héroïne; Juif, Juive)

• Add -e

• No change (article changes only)

• -eur -rice and / or -euse depending on which relevant base words (masculine

forms) are included in the Vocabulary List

• -en -nn

Reduced

Formation of plural nouns (highly frequent irregulars will be listed in the

Vocabulary List: œil, yeux)

• Add -s to most nouns

• Add -x to masculine nouns ending in -(e)au and -eu

• Masculine nouns ending in -al change to -aux

• No change for nouns ending in -s, -x, -z

Formation of plural nouns (highly frequent irregulars will be listed in the

Vocabulary List: œil, yeux)

• Add -s to most nouns

• Add -x to masculine nouns ending in -(e)au and -eu

• Masculine nouns ending in -al change to -aux

• No change for nouns ending in -s, -x, -z

No change

Infinitive used as a noun i.e., as equivalent of -ing (gerund) in English

Infinitive used as a noun i.e., as equivalent of -ing (gerund) in English.

No change

Determiners: Articles

Determiners: Articles

 

Agreement of articles with noun for gender and number (le, la, les; un, une, des)

Agreement of articles with noun for gender and number (le, la, les; un, une, des)

 

Contraction of definite article (le/la à l’) before singular nouns that start with a vowel or h muet

Contraction of definite article (le/la l’) before singular nouns that start with a vowel or h

muet

No change – (except position)

Functions of definite and indefinite articles, including where their use or omission differs from English (e.g. La santé est importante; le mercredi)

Functions of definite and indefinite articles, including where their use or omission differs from English (e.g., La santé est importante; le mercredi)

No change – (except position)

 

Use of definite article before an adjective to form a noun, including addition of a capital letter where the resulting noun is a nationality (e.g., seul le seul; anglaise l'Anglaise)

No change – (except position)

Partitive articles when distinguishing between parts and wholes; after jouer with musical instruments; after faire with sports

Partitive articles when distinguishing between parts and wholes; after jouer with musical instruments; after faire with sports

No change – (except position)

Use of de (and omission of article) before nouns following a verb in negative and after expressions of quantity

Use of de (and omission of article) before nouns following a verb in negative and after expressions of quantity

 

Contraction of de to d’ when before a word beginning with a vowel

Contraction of de to d’ before a word beginning with a vowel

moved from prepositions

Other determiners

 

 

Demonstrative adjectives (ce, cet, cette, ces

Demonstrative adjectives (ce, cet, cette, ces)

No change

Possessive adjectives (mon, ma, mes, ton, ta, tes, son, sa, ses, notre, nos, votre, vos, leur, leurs)

Possessive adjectives (mon, ma, mes, ton, ta, tes, son, sa, ses, notre, nos, votre, vos, leur, leurs)

No change

Interrogative adjectives (quel, quelle, quels, quelles)

Interrogative adjectives (quel, quelle, quels, quelles)

No change

Agreement patterns for indefinite adjectives (chaque, plusieurs, même(s), autre(s), tout(e)(s), tous, quelque(s))

Agreement patterns for indefinite adjectives (chaque, plusieurs, même(s), autre(s), tout(e)(s), tous, quelque(s))

No change

Pronouns

Pronouns

 

Pronouns will be listed in the Vocabulary List (including on, and vous as formal ‘you’). Their grammar (agreement, position) are laid out in this Grammar Annex.

Subject pronouns (je, tu, il, elle, on, nous, vous (as singular and plural formal ‘you’), ils and elles) will be listed in the Vocabulary List. Their grammar (agreement, position) is laid out in this Grammar Annex.

clarification

Preverbal position of direct object pronouns (me, te, le, la) (not juxtaposed with indirect object pronouns)

Preverbal position of singular direct object pronouns (me, te, vous, le, la) (not juxtaposed with indirect object pronouns)

clarification

Preverbal position of indirect object pronouns (me, te, lui) (not juxtaposed with direct object pronouns)

Preverbal position of singular direct object pronouns (me, te, vous, le, la) (not juxtaposed with indirect object pronouns)

clarification

Preverbal position of singular reflexive pronouns (me, te, se)

Preverbal position of singular reflexive pronouns (me, te, se)

no change

Contraction of pronouns (me m’, te t’, le/la l’, se s’) before a vowel or h muet

Contraction of pronouns (me m’, te t’, le/la l’, se s’) before a vowel or h muet

no change

Use of emphatic pronouns moi and toi after prepositions (as listed in the Vocabulary List)

Use of emphatic pronouns moi and toi after prepositions (the pronouns and relevant individual prepositions will be listed separately in the Vocabulary List)

changed order

Use of relative pronoun qui in subject relative clauses

Use of relative pronoun qui in subject relative clauses

changed order

VERB PHRASES

VERB PHRASES

 

Verbs that do not fit into the grammar detailed here can still be listed in the Vocabulary List to be learnt in the infinitive form only.

Verbs and verb forms that do not fit into the grammar detailed here can still be listed in the Vocabulary List.

Removed constraint to confine to infinitive (appendix detailes how irregular verbs should eb entered in list)

Negation

 

 

Word order of verbal negation with ne … pas and ne … jamais. Jamais, rien, and personne will be listed in the Vocabulary List as they can occur as isolated words (never, nothing, nobody).

Syntax of verbal negation with ne…pas, ne…jamais, ne…rien (as equivalent of ‘not verb anything’ and ‘verb nothing’), and ne…personne (as equivalent of ‘not verb anyone/body’ and ‘verb nobody’)

Removed reference to single words.

Interrogatives

Interrogatives

 

Interrogatives expressed through:

• intonation with SV word order, including when followed by a wh-word

(i.e., question words including ‘how’);

• (wh-word followed by) est-ce que followed by SV word order;

• (wh-word followed by) VS word order

Interrogatives expressed through:

• intonation with SV word order, including when followed by a wh-word (qui, quand,

quoi, pourquoi, comment, combien, où);

• wh-word (qu’, quand, pourquoi, comment, combien, où) followed by est-ce que

followed by SV word order;

• wh-word (que/qu’, quand, pourquoi, comment, combien, où) followed by VS word

order

More detail given

Inflectional morphology

Inflectional morphology

 

Specific irregular inflected forms (e.g., faites, vont), as a minimum those specified below, will be listed in the Vocabulary List under a section called ‘Irregular inflected verb forms’.

Specific irregular inflected forms (e.g., faites, vont), as a minimum those specified below,

will be listed in the Vocabulary List.

Removed requirement for heading

Some verbs change the spelling in their stems (e.g., accents change (mener,

je mène); consonants are doubled (jeter, je jette), softened (manger, nous mangeons; commencer, nous commençons) or lost (mettre, je mets). Such

spelling changes will not be credit-bearing.

Some verbs change the spelling in their stems (e.g., accents change (mener, je mène);

consonants are doubled (jeter, je jette), softened (manger, nous mangeons; commencer,

nous commençons) or dropped (mettre, je mets). Such spelling changes will not be

credit-bearing.

 

Regular -er and high frequency patterns* in 1st, 2nd, 3rd persons in

singular and plural for:

Regular* and four very high frequency irregular** patterns in 1st, 2nd, 3rd persons in singular and plural for:

Error perhaps?

Should it be 7?

*Seven clusters of high frequency verbs that all pattern following seven

‘anchor’ verbs: choisir, entendre, lire, offrir, prendre, partir, venir (the infinitives

within each of these clusters will be listed in the Vocabulary List).

*-er verbs (e.g., parler); clusters of high frequency -ir verbs that all pattern following one

of these four ‘anchor’ verbs: choisir, partir, venir, ouvrir; clusters of high frequency -re

verbs that all pattern following one of these three ‘anchor’ verbs: entendre, prendre, traduire.

Grouped as 4 anchor verbs -ir and

3 anchor verbs -re

 

HEM: Note move from trad regular er / re / ir’ (parler  - choisir – entendre) being distinguished from irregular)

 

ouvrir replaces offrir as an example

lire removed

traduire added

 

 

*aller, avoir, être, faire

(including use of avoir where the English equivalent is ‘BE’ e.g., + froid, + chaud, + an(s),

+ faim, + soif, + peur)

Changed order

Added idioms

requirement to be listed in vocab list referenced in appendix

Present indicative, as equivalent of the English simple (I walk) and ongoing (I am walking) functions.

 

Present indicative, as equivalent of the English simple (I walk) and ongoing (I am walking) functions, and (with time adverbs) for expression of the future as equivalent of the English simple (the holidays start tomorrow) and continuous (I

am working this evening)

Added function of present tense to express future

Inflected forms of four very high frequency irregular verbs (aller,

avoir, être, faire) will be listed in the Vocabulary List.

Irregular inflected forms of the four very high frequency irregular verbs

(aller, avoir, être, faire) will be listed in the Vocabulary List.

Changed order

• Perfect tense, as equivalent of the English simple past (I walked, he

went) and present perfect (I have walked, he has gone); including past participle formation for -er verbs and the seven verb clusters listed

above.

Perfect tense, as equivalent of the English simple past (I walked, he went) and

present perfect (I have walked, he has gone); including past participle formation

for -er verbs and the seven verb clusters listed above.

 

Irregular past participles of high frequency verbs (été, eu, fait)

and any other irregular past participles (e.g., lu) will be listed in

the Vocabulary List.

Irregular past participles of three very high frequency irregular verbs (été,

eu, fait).

 

Periphrastic future expression (aller + infinitive), as equivalent of the English ‘BE + going to + verb’ and ‘will + verb’

Periphrastic future expression (aller + infinitive), as equivalent of the English ‘will + verb’ and ‘BE + going to + verb’

No change

Imperative (2nd person singular and plural only; not être; not reflexive)

Imperative (2nd person singular and plural only, including aller and faire; but not

avoir, être; not reflexive)

Detailed inclusion of aller + faire

Excluded imperative of avoir

Regular -er pattern in 1st, 2nd, 3rd persons in singular only for:

Regular patterns (see * above) and four very high frequency irregular patterns (see

** above) in 1st, 2nd, 3rd persons in singular only (excluding ‘you’ formal for:

 

Imperfect for habitual (only for equivalent of English ‘used to + verb’)

and ongoing (BE + ing) functions.

Imperfect for habitual (only for equivalent of English ‘used to + verb’) and ongoing

(BE + ing) functions.

 

o Four high frequency irregular verbs (allais, allait; avais, avait;

étais, était; faisais, faisait) will be listed in the Vocabulary List

o Irregular inflected forms of three very high frequency irregular verbs (avais,

avait; étais, était; faisais, faisait) will be listed in the Vocabulary List

Removed aller

Additional English equivalent functions will be listed in the Vocabulary List as follows: étais, était (to mean ‘was + adjectival complement’); avais, avait (to mean ‘had’); il y avait (to mean ‘there was / were’, as a multi-word unit)

Additional English equivalent functions will be listed in the Vocabulary List as follows: étais, était (to mean ‘was, were + adjectival complement’); avais, avait (to mean ‘had’ and ‘was, were’)

Removed il y avait from here – moved to impersonal verbs (sensible)

Other irregular inflected forms:

Other irregular inflected forms:

 

Present indicative forms in 1st, 2nd, 3rd persons in singular only of eight high frequency verbs (boire, connaître, courir, croire, écrire, rire, suivre, and voir) and their past participles will be listed in the Vocabulary Lis

Present indicative forms for 1st, 2nd, 3rd persons, in singular only, of nine high frequency verbs (boire, connaître, courir, croire, écrire, recevoir, rire, suivre, voir).

Their present indicative, past participle, imperative forms, and the infinitives will be

listed in the Vocabulary List.

Any other irregular present indicative forms, their past participles, imperative forms, and the infinitives will be listed in the Vocabulary List.

Added recevoir

 

Includes imperative forms

Conditional forms in 1st, 2nd, 3rd persons in singular only of five high frequency verbs (aurais, aurait; ferais, ferait; irais, irait; serais, serait; voudrais, voudrait), as equivalent of English ‘would + verb’, will be listed in the Vocabulary List

 

Moved down to modals

Impersonal verbs

Impersonal verbs

 

Il y a (listed in the Vocabulary List as a multi-word unit to mean ‘there is’ and ‘there are’)

Il y aura to mean ‘there is going to be’ or ‘there will be’ will be listed in the Vocabulary List as a multi-word unit.

il y avait (to mean ‘there was / were’, as a multi-word unit)

 

Il y a to mean ‘there is / are’,

il y avait (to mean ‘there was / were / used to be’) and

il y aura (to mean ‘there is going to be / are going to be / will be’ will be listed in the

Vocabulary List as multi-word units

Groups il y a in all tenses here

Added meaning ‘used to be’

Added plural to future

Il (fait) + weather-related expressions (as listed in the Vocabulary List, as multi-word units where necessary)

Il fait + adjective (e.g., il fait beau, il fait froid). Any adjectives that would be used in this construction will be listed in the vocabulary list.

Expanded – not restricted to weather

 

Il + weather-related expressions (e.g., il neige, il y a du soleil) will be listed in the Vocabulary List, as multi-word units where necessary

Added

Il faut + infinitive

Il faut + infinitive

No change

Il est for telling the time

Il est for telling the time

No change

Modals in in 1st, 2nd, 3rd persons in singular and plural

Modal verbs

Changed position

Use of modals in present indicative (devoir, pouvoir, savoir, vouloir) + infinitive (with highly irregular inflected forms of the modals listed in the Vocabulary List)

Present indicative forms for 1 st, 2nd, 3rd persons, in singular and plural of modals devoir, pouvoir, savoir, vouloir followed by infinitive. All inflected forms of the modals will be listed in the Vocabulary Lis

Changed to all inflected forms- presumably because all forms of modals are irregular and  inflected.

Conditional forms in 1st, 2nd, 3rd persons in singular only of five high frequency verbs (aurais, aurait; ferais, ferait; irais, irait; serais, serait; voudrais, voudrait), as equivalent of English ‘would + verb’, will be listed in the Vocabulary List

Conditional forms in 1st, 2nd, 3rd persons, in singular only (excluding ‘you’ formal), of vouloir (voudrais, voudrait), as equivalent of English ‘would like (to) + verb’, will be listed in the Vocabulary List

moved to modals

 

Moved  avoir, faire, aller and être to higher tier

Reflexive use of verbs

Reflexive use of verbs

 

Singular only, for 1st, 2nd, 3rd person

1 st, 2nd, 3rd persons in singular only

Slight re-wording

ADJECTIVAL PHRASES

ADJECTIVAL PHRASES

 

Agreement for gender and number with nouns following regular patterns (of adjectives listed in the Vocabulary List):

Agreement for gender and number with nouns following regular patterns (of adjectives listed in the Vocabulary List):

No change

Gender

add -e

no change with adjectives ending in mute -e

-x -se

-el -lle

-en -nne

-f -ve

-er -ère

-et -ète

Gender

Add -e

No change with adjectives ending in mute -e

-x -se

-el -lle

-en -nne

-f -ve

-er -ère

Removed et / ète

(High frequency irregulars, or those that follow regular patterns other than

those listed above, will be listed in the Vocabulary List as separate items, e.g.,

net/te, bon/ne, nouveau/elle, pareil/le, travailleur/euse)

(Highly frequent irregulars will be listed in the Vocabulary List as separate items, e.g.,

net/te, bon/ne, nouveau/nouvelle, pareil/le, travailleur/travailleuse)

Removed need to include above in list.

 

HEM: NB – will add significantly to list .. all those eur / euse words!

• Number add -s no change for masculine forms already ending in -s and -x -al à -aux for masculine

Number Add -s No change for masculine forms already ending in -s and -x -al -aux for masculine

No change

(Irregulars beau/x and nouveau/x in the Vocabulary List as separate items)

(Irregulars beau/x and nouveau/x will be listed in the Vocabulary List as separate items

No change

Position of adjectives in relation to the nouns they refer to: mostly after nouns; before nouns only for the defined set in the Vocabulary List.

Position of adjectives in relation to the nouns they refer to: mostly after nouns; before nouns only for the defined set in the Vocabulary List.

No change

Use of regular comparative structures (plus…que, moins…que, aussi…que), with irregulars (meilleur, meilleure, meilleurs, meilleures and pire, pires) listed in the Vocabulary List

Use of regular comparative structures (plus…que, moins…que, aussi…que), with irregulars (meilleur, meilleure, meilleurs, meilleures and pire, pires) listed in the Vocabulary List

No change

ADVERBIAL PHRASES

ADVERBIAL PHRASES

 

Adverbs and adverbial phrases will be listed in the Vocabulary List.

Adverbs and adverbial phrases will be listed in the Vocabulary List.

No change

Position of adverbs of time, manner, place

Position of adverbs of time, manner, place

No change

Use of regular comparative structures (plus…que, moins…que, aussi…que), with the irregular forms (mieux and pire) listed in the Vocabulary List.

Use of regular comparative structures (plus…que, moins…que, aussi…que), with the irregular adverbial forms (mieux and pire) listed in the Vocabulary List.

No change

PREPOSITIONS

PREPOSITIONS

 

À / de needed in certain multi-verb phrases before an infinitive. These verb + preposition combinations will be listed in the Vocabulary List alongside the verb entry (e.g., finir ‘to finish’; finir de + infinitive ‘to finish + verb’). Where the preposition changes or adds to the meaning of the verb, English translations will be listed (e.g., arriver ‘to arrive’; arriver à ‘to manage to’).

À / de can be needed before a noun or a second verb following some verbs. These verb + preposition combinations will be listed in the Vocabulary List alongside the verb entry (e.g., finir ‘to finish’; finir de + infinitive ‘to finish + verb’; dépendre ‘to depend’; dépendre de ‘to depend on + noun’). Where the preposition changes or adds to the meaning of the verb, English translations will be listed (e.g., arriver ‘to arrive’; arriver à ‘to manage to’).

moved up

 

clarification, additional example

Appropriate usage of en / à with proper nouns for places (countries, regions/states, cities)

Appropriate use of en / à with proper nouns for places (e.g., countries, regions/states, cities)

moved down

Contraction of definite article when used with à and de to agree with the gender and number (à, à la, au, aux; de, de la, du, des)

Contraction of definite article when used with à and de to agree with the gender and number (à, à la, au, aux; de, de la, du, des)

moved from determiners / articles

 

De to indicate possession (e.g., le sac de Léa)

moved down

 

Prepositions (pour, sans) + infinitive

aDDED

HIGH FREQUENCY PATTERNS OF DERIVATIONAL MORPHOLOGY

DERIVATIONAL MORPHOLOGY

Changed title

Patterns listed here indicate that only one core stem (e.g., rapide) would need to be listed in the Vocabulary List

For Reading only. Derivational morphology listed here indicates that even if only the base form (e.g., rapide) is listed in the Vocabulary List, a derived form that follows one of the patterns listed here (e.g., rapidement) may be included in reading texts (or if only the specific affixed form is listed, the base form may be included in reading texts). Note, if derived forms are included in listening material or required for production, they will be listed separately in the Vocabulary List.

Change: allows for reading texts to contain words which derive from or are the base form of those in vocab list.

 

Uniformly applicable derivational morphology that changes meaning

 

New title

 

Ordinal numbers created by adding -ième (or by dropping -e and adding -ième) to cardinal numbers, e.g., deux – deuxième; quatre – quatrième. Irregular forms premier and première will be listed in the Vocabulary List.

Added.  Otherwise the vocabulary list could made up solely of cardiunal numbers! (pointedout by exam boards)

 

Other highly frequent patterns

 

 

Morphology that changes meaning

Added

Prefixes:

Prefixes:

Same

Adjectives: in- only where the English equivalent is ‘un-’, or meaning ‘opposite of’ Verbs: dé- only where the English equivalent is ‘de-’ or meaning ‘not

Adding in- or im- to adjectives, adverbs, and nouns, only where the English equivalent is un- or in-, or means ‘opposite of’, e.g., également inégalement; sécurité insécurité; possible impossible

changed order

(seems logical somehow!!!)

 

added ‘im’

removed ‘de’

 

Morphology that changes the part of speech

clarification

Suffixes

Suffixes

 

Adverbs: -ment or -ement only where the English equivalent is -ly

Adjectives created by adding -able or -eable to the verb stem, only where the

English equivalent is -able or -ible, e.g., porter portable; changer changeable

• Nouns created by adding -ion or -ation to the verb stem, only where the English

equivalent is -ion or -ation, e.g., préparer préparation; continuer continuation

• Adverbs ending in -ment, only where the English equivalent is -ly, created by:

o adding -ment to the feminine form of adjectives e.g., première

premièrement

o by dropping -ant(e) /-ent(e) from an adjective and adding -amment /-

emment e.g., courant couramment; patient patiemment)

Considerable additions.

 

(helps with showing similarities with English grammar?  cf NC KS2)

 

 


 

FRENCH HIGHER TIER

 

NB presented in the order of 2022.  Some changed position in the list, but I am not commenting on this

 

Proposal

Final January 2022

Commentary

NOUN PHRASES

NOUN PHRASES

 

Determiners: Articles

Determiners: Articles

 

Partitive articles with uncountable and abstract nouns

Partitive articles with uncountable nouns

added

Use of article with dans; omission of article with en

Use of article with dans; omission of article with en

no change

Other determiners

Other determiners

 

Use of negative adjective determiner aucun, aucune

Use of negative adjective determiner aucun(e)

no change

Use of indefinite adjective determiners tel, telle, tels, telles and certain, certaine, certains, certaines

 

removed

Pronouns

Pronouns

 

Preverbal use of pronouns y and en (not juxtaposed with other object pronouns, except in the phrase ‘il y en a’, ‘il y en avait’ and ‘il y en aura’)

Preverbal use of pronouns y and en (not juxtaposed with other object pronouns, except in the phrase ‘il y en a’, ‘il y en avait’ and ‘il y en aura’)

no change

Preverbal position of direct object pronouns (nous, vous, les) (not juxtaposed with indirect object pronouns)

Preverbal position of plural direct object pronouns (nous, vous, les) (not juxtaposed with indirect object pronouns)

changed description

Preverbal indirect object pronouns (nous, vous, leur) (not juxtaposed with direct object pronouns)

Preverbal position of plural indirect object pronouns (nous, vous, leur) (not juxtaposed with direct object pronouns)

changed description

Use of emphatic pronouns (lui, elle, nous, vous, eux, elles) for emphasis and with même(s)

Use of emphatic pronouns (lui, elle, nous, vous, eux, elles) after prepositions

moved up

Omits même, adds clarification

Preverbal position of plural reflexive pronouns (nous, vous, se).

Preverbal position of plural reflexive pronouns (nous, vous, se

no change

Negative subject pronouns personne ne + verb and rien ne + verb (as equivalent of English nobody + verb and nothing + verb)

Negative subject pronouns personne ne + verb and rien ne + verb (as equivalent of English ‘nobody + verb’ and ‘nothing + verb’)

Moved down

Subject relative clauses using wh- pronouns (où, quand)

Relative clauses using wh- pronouns (où, quand, and que

No distinction subject / object que

Object relative clauses using que

 

omitted / combined with above

Position and agreement of singular demonstrative pronouns (le mien, la mienne, les miens, les meinnes ; le tien, la tienne, les tiens, les tiennes ; le sien, la sienne, les siens, les siennes)

 

Omitted

VERB PHRASES

VERB PHRASES

 

Syntax of negation with ne … rien (as equivalent of ‘not verb anything’ and ‘verb nothing’), ne … personne (as equivalent of ‘not verb anyone/body’ and ‘verb nobody’), ne… plus, ne … ni … (ni …), ne…pas encore, ne … que

Syntax of négation with ne…plus, ne…ni… (ni …), ne… pas encore, ne…que

Moved to foundation

Passive voice in the present (full form only i.e., with par

Passive voice in the present (full form only i.e., with par)

no change

Impersonal verbs in phrases (il est difficile/facile/interdit de + infinitive;

Impersonal verbs with adjectives + de (e.g., il est difficile/facile/interdit de + infinitive). Any adjectives used in impersonal phrases will be listed in the Vocabulary List.

Changed description

Some omitted

il manque + noun; il vaut mieux/ la peine de + infinitive)

Impersonal verbs in phrases il manque + noun; il vaut mieux + infinitive; il vaut la peine de + infinitive

Separated

Periphrastic time expressions être en train de (as equivalent of ‘BE [in the process of] + verb-ing’) and venir de (as equivalent of ‘HAVE just done + verb’)

Periphrastic time expressions être en train de (as equivalent of ‘BE [in the process of] + verb-ing’) and venir de (as equivalent of ‘HAVE just done + verb’)

No change

Verbs used with plural reflexive pronouns, with reflexive and reciprocal meanings (e.g., nous nous écrivons; vous vous parlez; ils se regardent)

Verbs used with plural reflexive pronouns, with reflexive and reciprocal meanings (e.g., nous nous écrivons; vous vous parlez; ils se regardent)

No change

Inflectional morphology

Inflectional morphology

no change

Present indicative (in 1st, 2nd, 3rd persons, singular and plural) and past

participle formation of three clusters of high frequency verbs that all pattern following the ‘anchor’ verbs: connaître, écrire, reçevoir [SIC] (the infinitives within each of these clusters will be listed in the Vocabulary

List).

Two additional clusters of high frequency verbs that all pattern following the

‘anchor’ verbs connaître and écrire, in the forms as specified at Foundation:

Present indicative (in 1st, 2nd, 3rd persons, singular and plural); perfect tense;

periphrastic future; imperative (2

nd person singular and plural only; not reflexive);

imperfect (in 1st, 2nd, 3rd persons, singular).

recevoir moved to foundation irregular [not an anchor veb]

Present tense with depuis (as equivalent of ‘have been + ing’ for ‘x time’)

Present tense with depuis (as equivalent of ‘have been + ing’ for ‘x time’)

no change

Perfect tense of modals (devoir, pouvoir, savoir, vouloir) (with past participles listed in the Vocabulary List)

Perfect tense of modals (devoir, pouvoir, savoir, vouloir) (with past participles listed in the Vocabulary List)

no change

Inflectional future for regular -er, singular and plural forms (1st, 2nd, 3rd

persons), as equivalent of both ‘BE + going to’ and ‘will’

o Singular forms of four high frequency irregular verbs (aurai, auras, aura; ferai, feras, fera; irai, iras, ira; serai, seras, sera) will be listed in the Vocabulary List.

o Any other regular or irregular inflected forms will be laid out as separate items in the Vocabulary List

• Inflectional future for regular -er verbs in 1st, 2nd, 3rd persons in singular and

plural, as equivalent of both ‘will + verb’ and ‘BE + going to + verb’

o Singular forms of four high frequency irregular verbs (aurai, auras, aura;

ferai, feras, fera; irai, iras, ira; serai, seras, sera) will be listed in the Vocabulary List.

detail about list removed - made clear elsewhere in appecdix

Conditional of regular -er singular forms only (1st, 2nd, 3rd persons)

Conditional of regular -er singular forms only (1st, 2nd, 3rd persons) in singular and plural

Added plural conditional

 

Singular forms of four high frequency irregular verbs (aurais, aurait; ferais, ferait; irais, irait; serais, serait) will be listed in the Vocabulary List

Moved from foundation tier

Imperfect for regular -er plural forms, for equivalent of English habitual (‘used to + verb’) and ongoing (‘BE -ing’)

o For all other regular or irregular verbs, inflected forms will be laid out as separate items in the Vocabulary List.

Imperfect for regular (-er, and the nine ‘anchor’ verb patterns) verbs 1st, 2nd and 3rd person plural forms for equivalent of English habitual (‘used to + verb’) and ongoing (‘BE -ing’). This includes the 1st, 2nd and 3rd person plural forms of the three very high frequency irregular verbs (avoir - to mean ‘had, were’; être - to mean ‘were + adjectival complement’; faire)

Added nine anchor ‘regular’ verb patterns to compulsory elements:

i.e.

four ‘anchor’ verbs: choisir, partir, venir, ouvrir;

clusters of high frequency -re verbs that all pattern following one of these three ‘anchor’ verbs: entendre, prendre, traduire.

PLUS  connaitre + écrire

 

Should be ‘in addition’ rather than ‘this includes’?:

 

Added explicitly 3 irregular verbs to be included avoir, être and faire

Imperative of 2nd person singular and plural of être (sois and soyez, each listed in Vocabulary List), and of regular verbs 1st person plural

(not reflexive), with the function ‘Let’s + verb!

Imperative of 2nd person singular and plural of être (sois and soyez, each listed in

Vocabulary List), and of regular (-er, and the nine ‘anchor’ verb patterns) verbs 1st person plural (not reflexive), with the function ‘Let’s + verb

Regular clarified ( - er + 9 anchor patterns)

 

Present participle of regular (-er, and the ten ‘anchor’ verb patterns) verbs after en

Present participle of regular (-er, and the nine ‘anchor’ verb patterns) verbs after

en, including adjectival use where relevant

o Irregular present participles of three very high frequency irregular verbs

(étant, ayant, faisant) will be listed in the Vocabulary List.

Changed number of anchor verb patterns. (recevoir removed and changed status from ‘anchor verb patter’ to ‘irregular’

 

Added adjectival use.

 

Added être, avoir + faire

ADJECTIVAL PHRASES

ADJECTIVAL PHRASES

 

Use of regular superlative adverb structures (and irregulars as listed in the Vocabulary List)

Use of regular superlative adjective structures (irregulars le meilleur, la meilleure, les meilleurs, les meilleures, le pire, la pire and les pires will be listed in the Vocabulary List)

Added required superlative structures I think (‘will be rather than ‘if used,. Should be …’)

 

Words defined

ADVERBIAL PHRASES

ADVERBIAL PHRASES

 

Use of regular superlative adverb structures (and irregulars as listed in the Vocabulary List)

Use of regular superlative adverb structures (irregulars le mieux and le pire will be listed in the Vocabulary List)

Added required superlative structures I think (‘will be rather than ‘if used,. Should be …’)

 

Words define

PREPOSITIONS

PREPOSITIONS

 

Preposition (avant de, pour, sans) + infinitive

Preposition (avant de) + infinitive

Preposition (après avoir) + past participle

après avoir added

pour + sans moved to foundation

 

DERIVATIONAL MORPHOLOGY

 

 

For Reading only. Derivational morphology listed here indicates that even if only the

base form (e.g., porter) is listed in the Vocabulary List, a derived form that follows one of

the patterns listed here (e.g., porteur) may be included in reading texts (or if only the

specific affixed form is listed, the base form may be included in reading texts). Note, if

derived forms are included in listening material or required for production, they will be

listed separately in the Vocabulary List.

Change: allows for reading texts to contain words which derive from or are the base form of those in vocab list.

 

(As Foundation level – overlapping tier)

 

Morphology that changes the part of speech

New

 

Suffixes:

New

 

• Agent nouns created by adding -eur or -ateur to a verb stem, e.g., porter porteur; consommer consommateur

New

 

French sound-symbol correspondences

Proposal

Final January 2022

Commentary

The list which follows specifies key differences in sound-spelling correspondences between French and English which students will need to learn at GCSE to be able to read and transcribe with sufficient accuracy at this level.

 

The list which follows specifies key differences in sound-spelling correspondences between French and English which students will need to learn at GCSE to be able to read out loud and transcribe with sufficient accuracy at this level.

 

 

It is not an exhaustive list of the all [SIC]sound-spelling orrespondences in the French language.

It is not an exhaustive list of the all [SIC] sound-spelling correspondences in the French language.

 

Where a letter or combination of letters is pronounced (or a sound spelt) in approximately the same way in French as in English, it is not listed.

 

Where a letter or combination of letters is pronounced (or a sound spelt) in approximately the same way in French as in English, it is not listed.

 

 

 

Students will be expected to pronounce words with stress patterns that allow their speech to be clear and comprehensible.

 

Added. 

 

HEM: Intonation still not required.

The use of hyphens indicates the position of the letters in a word, when position is relevant to the sound: xx- (at the beginning of a word); -xx- (in the middle of a word); -xx (at the end of a word).

The use of hyphens indicates the position of the letters in a word, when position is

relevant to the sound: xx- (at the beginning of a word); -xx- (in the middle of a word); -xx

(at the end of a word).

 

silent final consonant a i/y eu e au/eau/closed o/ô ou u silent final e é (-er, -ez) en/an/em/am on/om ain/in/aim/im è/ê/ai oi/oy ch ç (and soft 'c') qu j -tion -ien s-liaison t-liaison n-liaison x-liaison h um/un -gn[1]r open eu/œu open o -s[1]th -ill-/-ille -aill-/ail -eille-/-eil -euill-/-euil/-ueill-/-ueil/-œill-/-œil -ouill-/ouil

silent final consonant a i/y eu e au/eau/closed o/ô ou u silent final e é (-er, -ez) en/an/em/am on/om ain/in/aim/im è/ê/ai oi/oy ch ç (and soft 'c') qu j -tion -ien s-liaison t-liaison n-liaison x-liaison h um/un -gn[1]r open eu/œu open o -s[1]th -ill-/-ille -aill-/ail

10 removed